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Hubert H. Humphrey Digitization Project

This is the tenth installment of our NHPRC funded project to digitize Hubert H. Humphrey's speech texts. This month we focus on the last half of 1968 and the campaign that almost landed Humphrey the highest office in the country.

Hubert H. Humphrey, Democratic National Convention, 1968

The Republican convention of 1968 was held in early August near the resort city of Miami Beach and "looked like a tranquil interlude in the chaos, riots, killings, fighting, crime, and war -- all identified with Democrats -- that filled the year 1968" (Education of a Public Man, p. 286).

A Gallup poll, taken right after the Republican convention, showed Richard Nixon leading Humphrey by sixteen points. Humphrey's staff was split on whether or not the candidate should break with the President's policies on Vietnam. Numerous drafts of statements were proposed to Humphrey, urging him to take his own stand on the issue.

Meet the Press, NBC, August 25, 1968 President Johnson was attempting to set up peace talks with the Vietnamese in Paris. Humphrey was reticent to break with Johnson, especially if it would undermine the ongoing negotiations. He sought the President's consent on successive drafts of a compromise statement, however, and right up until the Democratic convention Humphrey thought that Johnson would give his consent to a compromise statement on Vietnam. Walking a tight rope of media scrutiny, Humphrey declared on Meet the Press the morning of his departure for the convention that "My position on the Vietnam War and our effort to gain peace is as it has been. I believe that we could and should stop the remaining bombing of the North if we receive indication that there is restraint and reasonable response from Hanoi."

Johnson picked the city of Chicago to hold the Democratic convention. Mayor Richard Daley fully supported this decision. Both men refused to change the venue even after numerous difficulties presented themselves. Humphrey later admitted that the city was the worst possible place for the convention. Striking electricians, telephone workers and taxi drivers made communication and transportation difficult. Mayor Daley and the police of Chicago were joined by Army troops and Illinois National Guardmen to handle thousands of anti-war protestors both before and during the convention.

Acceptance speech, Democratic National Convention, August 29, 1968 Tensions rose during the convention. Mayor Daley refused permits to protestors. Television cameras picked up delegates protesting for peace inside the convention and demonstrators rioting outside in the streets and parks of Chicago. Innocent bystanders were threatened and beaten by police alongside protestors. Humphrey and his family received death threats. In the midst of this turmoil staff were preparing an acceptance speech for Humphrey who would inevitably win the nomination. When he saw the final draft, however, Humphrey felt it did not reflect the events unfolding around him. Assisted by two of his personal secretaries, he dictated a new draft right up until the time he had to leave for the convention hall to give his speech. Humphrey realized on the way to the hall that the prayer of St. Francis of Assisi had been deleted from the final draft of the speech by one of his staff members who thought it inappropriate. He called the Chicago Public Library on the car phone and had them dictate it to him, asserting that it was indeed an appropriate prayer for so violent and chaotic a time.

Hubert H. Humphrey, Democratic National Convention, 1968"I have never had a more difficult assignment," Humphrey recalled of his speech that night. "It tested every nerve in my body, and it tested my will, my courage, and my capacity to overcome crisis and difficulty, to try to sway an audience to my side, to at least calm the fears of some, fortify the hopes of others, and hold a party together that was on the verge of an explosion that would have fractured it for a long, long time" (Education of a Public Man, p. 296).

Hugh Downs interview: Today Show, August 29, 1968 Humphrey received the Democratic presidential nomination, but he won it during one of the largest demonstrations of the century. He tried to pull the party together, but the protestors and young people of America found him old fashioned and out of touch, especially when he refused to join them in the parks and on the streets outside of the convention as his rival Eugene McCarthy had done and instead took the side of Mayor Daley and the police against the anti-war protestors. In an interview with Hugh Downs of the Today Show the last day of the convention Humphrey explained that the "tactics of rowdism do not add to a convention" and that history is "strewn with the wreckage of self-righteous militant minorities, who thought that they had a sort of a monopoly on truth."

Though he spoke strongly against the unrest, his own campaign was in shambles. His staffer Ted Van Dyke remembered: "we left Chicago fifteen points down, with blood in the streets, conflict in the convention hall, everything at rock bottom and not a penny in the bank by the way" (Hubert H. Humphrey: The Art of the Possible by Mick Caouette).

Campaign Kickoff Rally, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 9, 1968 After the convention, Humphrey and his campaign floundered. The campaign kickoff officially began on September 9th in Philadelphia, the city where he first burst onto the national scene in 1948. The speech Humphrey gave that day focused on the choices Americans had to make in the conflict-ridden era of 1968. His organization, however, failed to provide buttons and pennants for the occasion and the crowd was all too eager to shout "Dump the Hump" at the candidate.

Western States Water and Power Conference, September 19, 1968 As the campaign went on, Humphrey's refusal to distinguish himself from the Johnson administration, of which he was still a part, remained a stumbling block. Protesters and critics met him at every stop. In a speech at the Western States Water and Power Conference in Sioux Falls, South Dakota after detailing a ten-point program for the revitalization of rural America, Humphrey told the crowd his life was "dedicated to works of peace, the Peace Corps, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Food for Peace, The Disarmament Agency, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty." He stated: "I took as a top item on my agenda when I become your President on January 20, 1969, I put it at the top of my list to find a way to end this war and to make this country once again united." The crowd responded strongly when he mentioned peace and it became clear to Humphrey and his campaign managers that this was the issue above any other that resonated with his audiences.

Civic Center Rally and message to people of Seattle, Seattle, Washington, September 28, 1968 By the end of September, Humphrey knew he needed to make his own statement on Vietnam despite what the President said or how the negotiations in Paris were going. In Seattle he faced the worst heckling of the campaign. The usual boos and shouts of the crowd were drowned out this time by one heckler with a bull horn. As the television cameras watched, Humphrey asked the man to "go ahead and make your speech." The man did, speaking about the scream of death, the wound of war, police brutality in Chicago, and of Humphrey's crimes against humanity by being complicit with the war in Vietnam. Though the police and Secret Service finally removed the protestors from the Civic Center and Humphrey was able to give his speech afterwards, the moment unnerved him and he resolved then to say what was on his mind and what he felt even if he lost the election.

Speech on Vietnam, NBC-TV, Salt Lake City, Utah, September 30, 1968 On September 30th in Salt Lake City Humphrey gave this televised speech to the American people explaining his position on Vietnam. The speech had been hotly debated by his staff. They had argued for hours over wording and nuances of meaning. In the end Humphrey drafted a new speech and gave his trusted advisors a last look, then called Johnson fifteen minutes before he delivered it to tell him what he would say. After Humphrey assured him that it would not embarrass him or jeopardize Paris negotiations Johnson replied "I gather you're not asking my advice." Humphrey gave the speech in one take and afterwards felt that he had finally gotten to say what he wanted about the war. He had finally made his own stand.

After the televised Salt Lake City speech, Humphrey's campaign began to gain momentum. "Weeks of struggling, trying to catch up for lost time frantically putting together an organization, always short of finances, error compounded by error, led suddenly to a building momentum, to larger and larger crowds, to excitement and enthusiasm, to a feeling of possible success (Education of a Public Man, p. 303).

Eugene McCarthy finally gave Humphrey his endorsement in the last days of October. A few days before the election President Johnson announced a breakthrough in the negotiations in Paris, saying that the bombing of North Vietnam would stop and that peace talks were scheduled for days after the election.

By November 3rd Johnson himself actively campaigned with Humphrey, joining him for an event at Houston, Texas, November 3, 1968the Houston Astrodome. Accompanied by Babe Ruth, Joe DiMaggio and Mickey Mantle and surrounded by an enthusiastic crowd Humphrey and Johnson had put their differences aside for the good of the party. In his speech Humphrey proclaimed that he would always be Johnson's faithful friend and proud of it, and during the remaining months of his presidency, his loyal Vice President.

Humphrey and Nixon were in a dead heat in the polls. The hope of peace talks with the North Vietnamese and an end to the war may have handed Humphrey the presidency. Behind the scenes the Nixon campaign convinced the Vietnamese in Paris to stay away from the ongoing negotiations, promising that a Nixon administration would give them a better deal after the election. On election day the numbers showed that Nixon had beaten Humphrey by less than one-half of one percent of the popular vote.

Concession speech and statement, November 5-6, 1968In his concession speech Humphrey said that he "couldn't possibly be any happier than in the knowledge that we had done the right thing. We have said what we believed, we have spoken the hard facts of our country as we saw them. We have offered what we thought were the alternatives and the solutions. We placed our case before the American people. We did it in a short period of time against tremendous odds, and all I can say tonight to the American people is they have been mighty good to us. They have given us a great vote of confidence in this popular vote."

In his autobiography, however, Humphrey admitted that "my dreams and hopes were smashed in a year when so much more in America was destroyed" (Education of a Public Man, p. 305).

Humphrey gave only a handful of speeches during the remainder of 1968. Exhausted and depressed by the narrowness of his defeat he caught the flu for the third time that year and began to re-evaluate his life. It would be the first time in 25 years that he had not held an elective public office.

These speech texts, as well as all of Humphrey's speeches from 1941-1968 are linked to the inventory of his Speech Text Files. More of Humphrey's speeches will be made available each month throughout this project. Look for the years 1969-1972 of Humphrey's speeches in July!

National Historical Publications and Records Commission

This project was awarded the support of a $46,000 grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (NHPRC) administered by the National Archives.

Learn more about how the NHPRC helps preserve records of enduring national historical value and promotes their public access and interpretation through archival and documentary programs.

New and Updated Finding Aids - May 2013

Name/Abstract File No.
Adjutant General: An Inventory of Its Indian War Pension Files adjg010
Application files for pensions submitted by military veterans of the U.S.-Dakota War of 1862, by others who rendered aid and suffered disabling injuries, and by their widows.
American Association of University Women. Minnesota State Division: An Inventory of Its Records 00503
Correspondence, minutes, financial data, scrapbooks of clippings and ephemera, reports, notes, and membership records of the Minnesota State Division and local branches of a national organization for college-educated women founded in 1881 to promote equity for all women and girls, lifelong education, and positive societal change.
Attorney General. Civil Case Files (Series 2) ag0062
Selected civil case files of the attorney general's office.
Attorney General: Natural Resources Division An Inventory of Its Reserve Mining Company Case Files ag0014
Legal and court documents relating to permits and litigation over Reserve Mining Company's waste control procedures, particularly its disposal of taconite tailings.
Cambridge State Hospital: An Inventory of Its Audio-Visual Materials gr00180
Photographs, films, and architectural drawings documenting activities of the residents and staff and various buildings and areas of the hospital facility.
Cambridge State Hospital: Superintendent: An Inventory of Its General Correspondence/Subject Files gr00721
Correspondence and subject files relating to all aspects of the institution's management, including general administration, personnel, patients/residents, medical service, research, library service, and relations with other hospitals, the legislature, and various supervisory agencies.
Janet M. Deming: An Inventory of Her Papers 00825
Personal papers of the owner and president of a Minneapolis-based employee-assistance firm, reflecting her personal interest in and study of social services, feminism, and civil rights in the 1960s and 1970s.
Michael J. and Jennie B. Dowling: An Inventory of Their Papers 00915
Newspaper and magazine articles, correspondence, printed materials, photographs, film recording, and memorabilia of Michael J. Dowling, a Minnesota politician, newspaper publisher, businessman, and spokesman for the physically handicapped, who as a boy lost three of his limbs to frostbite, and of his wife Jennie.
Education Department: An Inventory of Its State Board Examinations gr00694
Examination questions and scoring keys for elementary (grades 7 and 8) and high school subjects. Also includes, for 1941, a separate volume containing examination rules and regulations, and copies of forms, as well as examinations and keys.
Fergus Falls State Hospital: Patient Registers ffsh011
Records containing information on patients, many with data on individual patients.
General Federation of Women's Clubs of Minnesota: An Inventory of Its Records 00454
Records of a state association organized in 1895 as an affiliation of local women's clubs throughout Minnesota.
GFWC-West Suburban Women's Club: An Inventory of Its Club Records 00866
Constitution, bylaws, directories, minutes, handbooks, reports, newsletters and scrapbooks of a women's club organized in 1957 to pursue home and family study and to aid in philanthropic work in western Hennepin County, Minnesota.
Robbins Gilman and Family: An Inventory of Their Papers 00802
Correspondence, diaries, newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, printed materials, genealogical information, and some early family papers of Robbins Gilman and his wife Catheryne Cooke Gilman of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Also includes papers documenting the activities of their son Logan Drinker and his wife Rhoda Raasch Gilman and their daughters Betsy (Elizabeth) and Carolyn, and papers of Leonard O. and Rhoda (Kimbro) Raasch, Rhoda Gilman's parents. Papers from other family members and related families are also present.
Governor Van Sant, Samuel R.: An Inventory of His Gubernatorial Records at the Minnesota Historical Society gov029
General correspondence, materials relating to pardon matters, letters regarding Pharmacy Board appointments, and proclamations.
Governor's Council On Developmental Disabilities: An Inventory of Its Published Records and Reports govcdd05
Publications either created or collected by the Council pertaining to all aspects of its duties and responsibilities. Included are incomplete runs of the Council's News Letter (1975-1980), News Briefs (1975-1980), and Futurity (1990-1995); annual (1990, 2001-2002, 2004-2007), quarterly (1977-1981), and program (1984-2007) performance reports; annual work plans (1980-2007); monthly activity reports (1987-2007); three-year state plans (1975-1978, 1980-2000); the Council's May 1976 philosophy and mission statement; and a variety of related manuals, instructor's guides, guidelines, analysis, and reports. The latter cover such diverse topics as facilitated communication, medical assistance, legislation, positive learning, school integration, Welsch v. Noot, state hospitals, community involvement, early intervention, the state schools for the blind and deaf, quality indicators, individual plans, education and training opportunities, and technology.
Green Party of Minnesota: An Inventory of Its Records 01094
Constitutions and bylaws; meeting and convention agendas, programs, minutes, and reports; newsletters; correspondence; party platforms and campaign literature; leaflets; articles; and other papers relating to the Green Party of Minnesota; its predecessor, the Minnesota Greens Confederation; Twin Cities Greens; and the Green Party of St. Paul.
Hennepin County An Inventory of Its Marriage, Birth, and Death Records gr00089
Marriage certificates (1853-1996) and index (1853-1989), birth certificates (1866-1902) and index (ca. 1870-1931), and death certificates (1870-1909) and index (1890-1931).
Hennepin County: District Court: An Inventory of Its Naturalization Records and Index SAM043
Personal name index, 1853-1942; loose declarations of intention (first papers), 1853-1873; bound declarations of intention, 1867-1942; final papers (second papers), 1867-1906; petition and record (final papers), 1906-1938; depositions and related records, 1906-1930; and additional unfilmed records, relating particularly to World War I service members, 1918-1938.
Hennepin County: Minneapolis: Minneapolis Public Schools: An Inventory of Its Published Records and Reports gr00723
Reports and miscellaneous print and near-print items of or about the Minneapolis public school system.
Hennepin County: Minneapolis: Minneapolis Public Schools: Board of Education: An Inventory of Its Desegregation/Integration Files gr00722
Documents recording the desegregation/integration of the Minneapolis public schools during the 1960s-2000s, including various legal proceeding involving the district.
Hubert H. Humphrey: An Inventory of His Speech Text Files 00442
Hubert H. Humphrey Copies of Humphrey's speeches, in varying formats including notes, drafts, speaking texts, printed copies, and transcripts. Also present are excerpts, sample speeches, and incomplete indexes and checklists.

Includes digital content.
Immigration Board: An Inventory of Its Records immigbd
Records of this board established to promote and encourage immigration to the state, including biennial reports, correspondence, and printed materials.
Junior League of Saint Paul: An Inventory of Its Records 00327
Records documenting the history, administration, and activities of the Junior League of St. Paul, a women's voluntary civic association formed in 1917.
Law Advocates of Hennepin County: An Inventory of Its Records 01095
Constitutions, minutes, newsletters, scrapbooks, and other files of an organization established to promote understanding of the legal profession.
Law Advocates of Minnesota: An Inventory of Their Records 00603
Constitutions, bylaws, minutes, annual reports, membership directories, newsletters, correspondence, subject files, news clippings and photographs of a statewide organization of wives of lawyers and judges. The organization is devoted to the betterment of the legal profession, social activities, community issues, and pro bono work.
Metropolitan Council: An Inventory of Its Published Records and Reports metc025
Reports, newsletters, and miscellaneous print and near-print items of or about the Metropolitan Council.
Minnesota Territorial Archives: Territorial Governor An Inventory of the Records of the Territorial Governor Alexander Ramsey terr05
Subject files, correspondence, appointments, petitions, proclamations, and reports from territorial officers.
Natural Resources Department: Commissioner's Office: An Inventory of the Subject Files of William B. Nye dnr003
Nye's subject files as commissioner of the Department of Natural Resources. They pertain to all aspects of departmental administration and natural resource management issues.
Natural Resources Department: Forestry Division: An Inventory of Its Land Acquisition Files gr00719
Mainly documents from File No. 3220-0, containing records covering the division's land acquisition in general, including budget materials and land acquisition guides. Included are materials documenting land placed in abeyance for the Birch Lake, Land O'Lakes, and Sand Dunes state forests and the Richard J. Dorer Memorial Hardwood State Forest, and tract files for each parcel of land the division attempted to acquire for the Dorer Memorial Hardwood State Forest.
Pardon Board: Pardon Calendars pardon01
Minutes (titled "calendars" by the board) of the Board of Pardons, largely comprising a record of actions on individual pardon applications, although other actions of the board are also mentioned.
Ramsey County. Welfare Department: An Inventory of its Miscellaneous Records ramsy002
Scrapbooks (1929-1968), burial certificate stubs (1940-1966), Ramsey County Alms House inmate registers (1883-1944) and burial records (1895-1923), and Ramsey County Home visitor register (1951-1961).
Ramsey County: St. Paul: School Records: Galtier School: An Inventory of Its School Records gr00712
Records documenting the administration and students of this St. Paul elementary school.
Ramsey County: St. Paul: School Records: Harding High School: An Inventory of Its Miscellaneous Files gr00714
Handwritten notes of the Gopher Historians history club, detailing clubs, sports teams, and other student activities (1932-1947); various programs (1929-1976, 1991-1992), including those from the 1963 dedication and various student activities; clippings, mainly sports related (circa 1940-1994); class reunion booklets (1959-1972, scattered); photographs (1952-1990); television script for state hockey tournament participant promotion (1973); and photos and memorabilia relating to longtime teacher Mary Hanley (1954-1974).
Ramsey County: St. Paul: School Records: Independent School District No. 625: An Inventory of Its Bulletins and Newsletters gr00713
Bulletins and newsletters relating to various aspects of the district's administration. Includes the School Bulletin (Official Bulletin) of the Department of Education (1917-1932), School Bulletin (1947-1961), and Trends in Saint Paul Public Schools (1961-1967).
Ramsey County: St. Paul: School Records: Independent School District No. 625: An Inventory of Its Miscellaneous Records gr00019
Assorted records documenting the districts' administration.
Ramsey County: St. Paul: School Records: Independent School District No. 625: An Inventory of Its Miscellaneous School Materials gr00531
Photographs, histories, dedication programs, design development proposals, correspondence, reports, newsletters, handbooks, scrapbooks, and other assorted materials documenting over 100 St. Paul elementary, junior high, high, and special schools.
Ramsey County: St. Paul: School Records: Independent School District No. 625: An Inventory of Its Published Records and Reports gr00018
Reports and project proposals, facilities reports, curriculum, staff publications, and miscellaneous publications relating to the administration of the district.
Ramsey County: St. Paul: School Records: Webster Magnet School: An Inventory of Its School Records gr00715
Handbook (1975/1976), homeroom directories (1977-1985), newsletters (1965, 1979), three reports on the school's alternative aspect (1975, 1980s), desegregation plan (1974), policies and procedures (1978), and photographs and slides of student activities and the building's exteriors and classrooms (circa 1900-1994).
Rochester State Hospital An Inventory of Its Patient Registers and Indexes gr00099
The indexes list surname, case file number, and admission and discharge dates. The registers list all patients admitted to the hospital and record case number, name, county, admission date, age, civil (i.e., marital) condition, occupation, education (grade level), religion, habits (temperate or intemperate), nativity (state or country), nativity of parents, diagnosis, suicidal or homicidal, number of attack, number of admission (i.e., whether being readmitted), age at first attack, duration of insanity, time in hospital, date discharged, result (condition of dismissal), and observations.
Sauk Centre Home School for Girls: An Inventory of Its Case Files gr00724
Basic files documenting the incarceration of individuals at the facility.
Secretary of State: An Inventory of Its Land Survey Field Notes gr00507
Field notebooks kept by federal government surveyors as they laid out the exterior and subdivision lines of each Minnesota township. Also an interior index.
Secretary of State: An Inventory of Its Land Survey Miscellaneous Records gr00505
Assorted records documenting activities involving various aspects of the land survey.
Sherburne County: Assessor: An Inventory of Its Assessment Rolls gr00720
Assessment rolls for the civil subdivisions of Sherburne County; recording the value of taxable real and/or personal property for the years 1859-1860, 1862, 1864, 1866, 1868-1876, 1878-1898, 1900-1901 and sample years 1910-1911, 1920-1921, and 1930-1931.
St. Cloud State Reformatory: An Inventory of Its Inmate Photographs gr00711
Black and white photographs of reformatory inmates, although not all inmate numbers are represented. Each photograph may include brief identifying information such as name, aliases, birth date, race, height, weight, build, eyes, hair, complexion, and date of admission.
State Land Office: An Inventory of Its Abstracts of Sales slo002
Abstracts of sales of the various categories of trust fund lands by the state of Minnesota to private parties.
Wadena County: District Court: An Inventory of Its Civil and Criminal Registers of Actions gr00464
Registers of actions for civil (1881-1954) and criminal (1889-1947) cases.
Wadena County: Probate Court: An Inventory of Its Records gr00466
Records documenting the duties and activities of the probate court. Included are final decrees (1953-1977), insanity record (1943-1965), and will record books (1887-1979).
Washington County: District Court: An Inventory of Its Naturalization Records and Index SAM049
Personal name index, 1852-1936; declarations of intention, 1847-1944; final papers, 1879-1906; petition and record (final papers), 1906-1930; and loose naturalization papers, A-Z, 1847-1922.
Women's Art Registry of Minnesota: An Inventory of Its Records 00101
Records documenting the members, activities, and philosophy of a women's art collective in Minneapolis.

New and Updated Catalog Records

Arnold, T. C. (Thomas Clinton), 1829-1914. Civil War letters, 1863-1865.
Eight letters and one fragment written by Thomas Clinton Arnold to his wife Sarah regarding his service in Company B, 27th Wisconsin Volunteers.
Ballard, Roger C. U.S.S. Minneapolis (CA-36) Association records, 1942-1999.
Records of an organization of United States Navy veterans who served during World War II on the U.S.S. Minneapolis, a heavy cruiser that participated in the battles of the Coral Sea, Midway, Tassafaronga, the Philippine Sea, Guam, and Surigao Strait.
Collins, Alexander, 1811-1901. Letter to A. Catlin, 1855 December 27.
Letter from A.L. Collins to A. Catlin describing a visit to Saint Paul and environs; discussing his land entries in western Wisconsin and his interest in "half-breed" lands located near Red Wing, Minnesota; and his ideas about a possible railroad line between Superior and Hudson, Wisconsin.
Houston County: School District No. 57, Spring Grove Township. School records.
Clerks books (1904-1950), school record book (1871-1881), and class record (1912-1916).
Houston County: School District No. 70, Wilmington Township. School records.
Clerks books (1947-1948) and warranty deed for school property (1868).
Houston County: School District No. 77, Wilmington Township. School census, 1930.
Annual census of persons under 21 years of age in the district; including those not attending school or attending private school.
Johns, Verlan R. Verlan R. Johns papers, 1939-1988.
Investigator's notebooks, St. Paul Police Department staff telephone directories, a card listing Johns' dates in various positions within the department, and miscellaneous papers of a Saint Paul police detective.
Kmetz, William H. Papers relating to his service on the U.S.S. Minneapolis, 1934-1947.
Personal papers, photographs, and printed materials of William H. Kmetz of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, who served with the United States Navy on board the U.S.S. Minneapolis during World War II.
Wright, Edward F., 1835 or 1836-1900. Dakota War diary, 1863 June 1-September 12.
Diary of a member of the 7th Minnesota Regiment participating in the Sibley Expedition against the Dakota Indians.

Includes digital content.

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